Jurisdictions of Supreme Court of India

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The Supreme Court is the Apex Court of the Indian judiciary and is independent and integrated by nature. The different types of jurisdictions of Supreme Court are:

Original Jurisdiction

All questions or disputes regarding Indian federalism are resolved or decided by the Supreme Court of India. The Supreme Court will resolve disputes between

  • Center and state
  • Between different states
  • Center and one state vs other states

The original jurisdiction power is held only by the Supreme Court.

Appellate Jurisdiction

Appeal jurisdiction is the power by which, if a person is not satisfied with the decisions of a Lower Court, he or she can appeal to a higher court. The Supreme Court is regarded as the final court of appeal. And the decisions of the Supreme Court are binding on all Lower Courts.

Writ Jurisdiction

The writ is a legal document issued by a Court to a Judicial Officer. The writ can be issued by the Supreme Court and the High Court for the enforcement of fundamental rights. There are following types of writs: –

  • Prohibition
  • Quo-Warranto
  • Certiorari
  • Habeas Corpus
  • Mandamus

Advisory Jurisdiction

The President may seek advice from the Supreme Court whenever he deems it necessary.

Revisory Jurisdiction

The Lower Courts are limited by the judgments of the Supreme Court. But the Supreme Court is in no way, within the limits of its own judgment. It can review and modify its own decision as time and circumstances change.

Court of Record

According to Article 129 of the Constitution of India, the Supreme Court will be considered as the Court of Records and will have all the powers of such a court, including the power of punishing for contempt of itself.

Judicial Review

Judicial Review is not precisely mentioned anywhere in the Constitution. But this power is vested with the Supreme Court in different Articles: –

Article 13: – Any Law or Act which violates the fundamental rights shall be null and void.

Article 136: – Special leave to appeal – The Supreme Court, at its discretion, can render special leave to appeal any decree, decision, judgment, conviction or order in any case or matter pronounced or rendered by a court or tribunal of Indian territory.