Criminology is one of the branches of criminal science that is concerned with the social study of crime and criminal behavior. It aims to uncover the causes of crime. The need to study criminal science stems primarily from the psychological apprehension of the insecurity of life, liberty and property of the people. The science of criminology aims to approach case-by-case studies of different crimes and suggests measures to instill feelings of mutual trust, respect and cooperation among offenders. Some of the important attributes of criminology, however, are noted below: –
- The science of criminology presupposes the study of the criminal with the basic assumption that no one is born a criminal. It treats by reformation as the ultimate object of punishment while individualization is its method.
- The study of criminology also provides a background for the profession and an opportunity for social workers, police, lawyers, lawyers, judges, jurors, probation officers, detectives and other specialists such as sociologists, psychologists, etc. need a perfect knowledge of criminology.
- Criminology tries to convince the offenders through punitive sanction that bad conduct on their part is bound to entail them punishment, misery, worry and dispute in society. The reformative treatment offered to first offenders, juvenile delinquents and insane criminals makes it sufficiently clear that criminologists seeks to rehabilitate criminals as useful members of the society.
- The advancement of scientific knowledge to an enormous increase in the crime-rate and many new crimes have sprung up. This in turn has led criminal administrations to devise new methods and techniques to tackle these problems through scientific researches. Thus, the modern criminologists are more realistic in their approach and to tackle these intricate problems in the interest of social justice.
Dr P.K. Sen is rightly of the opinion of the importance of criminology that our epics which depict the glory of past civilization and culture amply justify our ancestors’ knowledge of the science of criminology. They treated offenders in a medico legal perspective and viewed them as patients with certain mental disorders. Criminologists should strive to instill feelings of brotherhood and equality among members of society whose law they learn to respect the land. Criminology seeks to create the conditions conducive to social solidarity. It also seeks to rehabilitate criminals as useful members of society. Various correctional measures are adopted to achieve this objective.